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Acetyl hexapeptide-8 is a non-animal synthetically derived peptide that is typically added to skincare products due to its water-binding properties and skin-restoring abilities. Specifically, this ingredient will help to increase moisture levels, plump the skin, and helps to reduce fine lines and wrinkles. Furthermore, Acetyl hexapeptide-8 contains a chain of amino acids which act to provide building blocks for new collagen and elastin fibre formation in the skin.

benefits:

  • Reduces fine lines and wrinkles
  • Increases moisturisation
  • Stimulates new collagen and elastin fibre production

concentrations used: 

sk.in gloss: 10%

sk.in bounce: 5%

sk.in flash 1, 2, and 3: 2%

sk.in marvel: 2%

Ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate is an oil-soluble form of vitamin C with superior absorption that penetrates the skin more quickly. It has powerful antioxidant properties yet is one of the most stable vitamin C derivatives. Ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate helps brighten the skin, lightening dark spots and hyperpigmentation, increases UV photo-protection, helping to reduce sun damage; boosts collagen production and fights the free radicals that cause premature ageing.

benefits:

  • Superior absorption, rapidly penetrates the skin
  • Powerful antioxidant
  • Helps prevent ageing
  • Hydrating
  • Protects against sun damage and boosts your sunscreens SPF
  • Stimulates collagen production
  • Helps lighten the skin

skin-restoring, skin-replenishing

Ceramides are lipid (fat) molecules that naturally occur in skin cells, a key component of the skin barrier i.e. the protective outer layer of the skin. Ceramides maintain and regulate the health of this vital protective outer mantle and help to keep the skin hydrated, inhibiting moisture loss through the skin barrier.

benefits:

  • Hydrating
  • Strengthens skin barrier
  • Replenishing
  • Restoring

Citric acid is an alpha- and beta hydroxy acid and has the skin benefits associated with both those compounds. It has also been shown to have a strong antioxidant activity due to free radical scavenging effects.

benefits:

Demonstrated in clinical studies using concentrations of citric acid ranging from 10 percent to 25 percent:

  • Visible improvement in skin quality consistent with histological changes in the epidermis and dermis that included:
  • Smoothing of the stratum corneum
  • Increases:
    • Viable epidermal thickness
    • Collagen synthesis
    • Density of water-binding glycosaminoglycans
  • Improvement in the quality of elastic fibres

D-panthenol is a biologically active form of vitamin B5 that has the ability to attract and hold moisture in the skin, improving hydration and texture.

benefits:

  • Moisturising
  • Strengthens the skin barrier
  • Penetrates deep into the skin
  • Soothing

Ethyl ferulate, also known as ferulic acid ester, is a plant-based, phenolic antioxidant. The antioxidant benefits to the skin are achieved whilst increasing the stability of both vitamin C and E topical applications, defending the skin against environmental depredations and reducing skin inflammation. Ethyl ferulate has a stronger anti-inflammatory effect on the skin than ferulic acid.

benefits:

  • Antioxidant
  • Enhances vitamins C & E
  • Helps defend against free radical damage
  • Reduces inflammation

Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and skin-restoring ingredient that is naturally found in the skin. Glycerin main function in the skin is to keep it looking healthy and to improve hydration by maintaining the skin’s moisture content.

benefits:

  • Increases hydration levels
  • Improves skin barrier function and health
  • Synergistic effect with hyaluronic acid

Glycolic acid is an alphahydroxy acid that was originally derived from sugar cane and has become one of the most popular alphahydroxy acids (AHA) used in skincare products. Glycolic acid has a small molecular size which allows it to be easily absorbed through the skin and its primary action is to exfoliate the outer skin layer and to increase cell turnover. Glycolic acid is a highly hydrophilic molecule with the greatest bioavailability of all the AHA’s.

This results in smoothing of uneven skin tone, refines the appearance of pores and helps to smooth fine lines and wrinkles. It is normal to experience a stinging or burning sensation which can last between 5 to 10 seconds when applying glycolic acid to the skin. This sensation may be exacerbated with sensitive skin. If you are a first-time glycolic acid user, we recommend introducing it slowly into your skin care regime.

benefits:

  • Smooths rough skin texture
  • Softens hyperpigmentation
  • Reduces excess sebum production
  • Improves fine lines and wrinkles
  • Enhances glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which are molecules vital for improving skin hydration
  • Stimulates collagen production

product containing glycolic acid 10%

sk.in ProPeel | glycolic-20 citric-30 contains: 20% glycolic acid and 30% citric acid

sk.in ProPeel | glycolic-35 citric-30 contains: 35% glycolic acid and 30% citric acid

sk.in ProPeel | glycolic-50 citric-30 contains: 50% glycolic acid and 30% citric acid

glycolic acid is an alphahydroxy acid (AHA) derived from sugar cane and is the smallest and simplest AHA in terms of chemical structure. It is highly hydrophilic molecule with the greatest bioavailability of all the AHA’s. Glycolic acid at     concentrations   of 20 to 50% has demonstrated    excellent clinical efficacy in the treatment of superficial hyperpigmentation, mild-to-moderate chrono- and photoaging and fine rhytids and is often considered the first-line choice of chemical peeling agents for treatment of melasma.

benefits:

  • Improves rough texture
  • Minimises fine lines and wrinkles
  • Reduces pores
  • Stimulates collagen and elastin production
  • Improves thickness of the epidermal and dermal layers
  • Increases skin hydration and GAG stimulation
  • Softens mild hyperpigmentation

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a substance naturally produced by the body, capable of holding a thousand times its own weight in water, making it an incredibly effective moisturiser for all skin types. Hyaluronic acid complex is the salt form and very compatible when applied externally to the skin. It helps boost the skin’s moisture content, soothes inflammation and prevents moisture loss. It also provides antioxidant defence against environmental assault, helping to repair and maintain the strength of the skin barrier. The hyaluronic acid complex found in all sk.in serums contains a combination of high, medium and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid molecules, with the low molecular weight being 50 kilodaltons.

benefits:

  • Hydrating
  • Moisturising
  • Improves fine lines and wrinkles
  • Can act as an antioxidant
  • Improves skin barrier function
  • Plumps and smooths the skin

concentrations used: 

sk.in flash 1: 0.6%

sk.in flash 2: 1.0%

sk.in flash 3: 2.0%

sk.in bounce: 1.0%

Hydroxypinacolone retinoate, a trans retinoic acid ester, which is an ester derivative of tretinoin the prescription topical for acne, is an exciting, next generation form of vitamin A that delivers all the anti-ageing benefits of retinol and retinoid derivatives with a far lower risk of irritation.

Hydroxypinacolone retinoate works in a more advanced way than traditional retinol as it binds directly with the skin’s retinoic acid receptors, whereas other retinols have to be converted by the skin receptors in order to be effective. Unlike other forms of vitamin A, hydroxypinacolone retinoate is gentle and less irritating while maintaining effectiveness for visibly more youthful skin.

benefits:

  • Anti-ageing
  • Binds directly with the skin's retinoic acid receptors
  • Safer, gentle form of vitamin A
  • Lightens skin discolourations.
  • Breaks down hyperpigmentation
  • Reduces number of pores and pore size
  • Improves  skin texture
  • Visible and tactile softening of the skin
  • Increased collagen and elastin production
  • Reduces fine lines and wrinkles
  • Antioxidant
  • Reduces sebum production
  • Improves acne breakouts and blemishes
  • Increases hydration and plumps the skin

concentrations used: 

sk.in avenge HPR 3: 3%

sk.in avenge HPR 4: 4%

sk.in avenge HPR 5: 5%

Hydroxypinacolone retinoate, a trans retinoic acid ester, which is an ester derivative of tretinoin the prescription topical for acne, is an exciting, next generation form of vitamin A that delivers all the anti-ageing benefits of retinol and retinoid derivatives with a far lower risk of irritation.

Hydroxypinacolone retinoate works in a more advanced way than traditional retinol as it binds directly with the skin’s retinoic acid receptors, whereas other retinols have to be converted by the skin receptors in order to be effective. Unlike other forms of vitamin A, hydroxypinacolone retinoate is gentle and less irritating while maintaining effectiveness for visibly more youthful skin.

benefits:

  • Anti-ageing
  • Binds directly with the skin's retinoic acid receptors
  • Safer, gentle form of vitamin A
  • Lightens skin discolourations.
  • Breaks down hyperpigmentation
  • Reduces number of pores and pore size
  • Improves  skin texture
  • Visible and tactile softening of the skin
  • Increased collagen and elastin production
  • Reduces fine lines and wrinkles
  • Antioxidant
  • Reduces sebum production
  • Improves acne breakouts and blemishes
  • Increases hydration and plumps the skin

Lactic acid is structurally identical to glycolic acid with a few differences in that it has an additional methyl group at the carbon end and has a lower pKa and pH.

benefits:

Lactic acid has demonstrated compared to standard glycolic acid peels, comparable efficacy in the treatment of:

  • Photodamage
  • Superficial hyperpigmentation
  • Fine lines and wrinkles

Lecithin’s is a naturally occurring lipid and its main function is to act as a skin emollient and has been shown to have both a softening and soothing effect on the skin. Studies have shown that lecithin has excellent deep skin penetration capability.

benefits:

  • Skin barrier restorative and repair ingredient
  • Increases hydration for mature, dry or textured skin
  • Acts as an emollient
  • Improves skin condition

Mandelic acid is a simple phenolic alpha-hydroxy acid and has been shown to be soluble in both water and polar organic solutions such as the lipid rich skin barrier. This ability results in a more uniform penetration through lipid-rich areas of the skin.

benefits:

  • Clinically mandelic acid has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of:
  • Superficial erythema or redness of the skin
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Reduces skin sebum production

skin-soothing, skin-restoring, antioxidants, vitamins

Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a very effective skin-restoring ingredient that helps to visibly improve the appearance of enlarged pores, improve uneven skin tone, reduce fine lines and dullness and strengthens a weakened skin barrier. Niacinamide can also help reduce the impact of environmental damage to the skin.

benefits:

  • Soothing
  • Restoring
  • Antioxidants
  • Improves skin elasticity
  • Enhances skin barrier function
  • Reduces pigmented discolourations
  • Improves tone and texture

plant extracts, exfoliant

Papaya extract is the source of the enzyme papain, which has exfoliating properties.

benefits:

  • Exfoliant

plant extracts, exfoliant

Pineapple extract contains the enzyme bromelain, which can break down the connecting layers between dead skin cells and has antioxidant and skin-soothing properties.

benefits:

  • Antioxidant
  • Skin-soothing
  • Exfoliant

Propylene glycol is typically used in cosmetics as a stabilising ingredient but it does have the ability to improve hydration.

benefits:

  • Improves skin hydration
  • Improves the penetration of active ingredients into the skin

product containing propylene glycol

skin-soothing, anti-acne, exfoliant

Also called betahydroxy acid (BHA), salicylic acid is an ingredient that has numerous functions on the skin and as a result can address both acne and ageing skin concerns. One of its main functions is to exfoliate dead skin which has multiple benefits including the stimulation of underlying cells to produce more collagen and elastin. Furthermore, salicylic acid has the ability to penetrate deep in pores cleaning all sebum and dirt that has accumulated through the day which will help to prepare the skin for your night time regime and helps to minimise both blackheads and whiteheads. Salicylic acid also has soothing properties, improves skin texture and can even increase hydration levels of the skin.

benefits:

  • Soothing
  • Anti-acne
  • Anti-ageing
  • At home chemical peel
  • Exfoliant
  • Deep pore penetration

Sodium hyaluronate crosspolymer is a modified form of skin-replenishing hyaluronic acid which, joined to a polymer structure, is retained within the skin’s uppermost layers for extended periods, resulting in enhanced hydration. Sodium hyaluronate crosspolymer is not animal-derived.

benefits: 

  • Hydrating
  • Repairs the skin barrier

product containing sodium hyaluronate crosspolymer 2%:

Tocopheryl acetate is fat-soluble vitamin E and one of the best known and researched antioxidants for the skin and body. It is the most bio-available form of vitamin E and has natural skin-conditioning and antioxidant properties, helping protect against free radical damage, strengthening the skin barrier and preventing moisture loss. It has natural SPF properties, helping improve the effectiveness of sunscreens and protecting against UV damage. This ester of acetic acid and tocopherol is an improved alternative to pure tocopherol (undiluted vitamin E) because it is more stable and less acidic.

benefits:

  • Antioxidant
  • Skin conditioning and repairing
  • Protecting
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